Techniques of Legal Research
History of Law reporting-
History of Law reporting-
1774- Started with the creation of Supreme Court
1824- Sir Francis Macnaghten included certain cases of Hindu Law in his Consideration upon Hindu Law.
1825- Sir William Macnaghten included Muslim laws in his Dissertation on Mohammedan Law.
1829- Notes of cases of the Supreme Court.
1834- Notes of cases inserted in Smoult's 'Collection of Orders'.
1774-1841- Morton's reports
1830-31- Bignell's reports
1842-44- Fulto's reports
1846- Montriou's reports
1853-59- Boulnoi's reports
1851-1860- Gasper's Commercial Cases
1847-1848- George Taylor's reports
1798-1816- CJ Sir Thomas Strange published a case report of SC of Madras
1875- A Law Report Act was passed.
DLR-Dhaka Law Report
AIR-All India Law Reports
BLD-Bangladesh Legal Decisions
CWR-Calcutta Weekly Report
MLR-Mainstream Law Reports
CLJ-Calcutta Law Journals
BLT-Bangladesh Law Times
SCC-Supreme Court Cases
BTD-Bangladesh Tax Decisions
CrLJ-Criminal Law Journal
BLC-Bangladesh Law Chronicles
CWN-Calcutta Weekly News
PLD-Pakistan Legal Decision
ALR-All England Law Report
PLC-Pakistan Labour Cases
WLR-Weekly Law Report
PLJ-Pakistan Labour Journal
LRQD-Law Report Queen's Division
PSC-Pakistan Supreme Court Cases
AC-Appellate cases in the House of Lords and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
PTD-Pakistan Tax Decision
Fam-Cases decided in the Family Division and on appeal therefrom to the Court of Appeal.
In Bangladesh Law Reports are made by dividing-
i) Appellate Division's Decision
ii) High Court Division's Decision
iii) Statutory Portion
Article-111: Judgment passed by the AD or HCD are precedents.
Courts are generally reluctant to permit the citation of unreported cases.
A case is cited mentioning-
i) Name of parties
ii) Name of the judges
iii) Name of the Counsellors
iv) Date of judgment
v) A fact in brief
vi) Reasoning behind the judgment
Rules of writing articles for research journal (Law and Judiciary)-
The Journal of Islamic Law and Judiciary has decided to follow these rules-
i) The writers are requested to send 2 hard copies and floppy disk
ii) Space of writing should me 1.5 to 2
iii) Writing should be clear, free of ambiguity
iv) No copy will be sent back to the writer
v) Editorial board has the right of correction
vi) All references should be put in the end notes
The following rules should be followed in quoting a book-
i) Surname of Author (,)
ii) First name (,)
iii) Name of the Book (in italic) (,)
iv) Name of publisher (,)
v) Name of place of publication (,)
vi) Year of publication (,)
vii) Edition (,)
viii) Volume (,)
ix) Page no (.)
Concise form of reference-
a) If the same reference is used, the second reference can be shortened.
Hamidullah, Introduction to Islam, p. 170.
b) Using Ibid-
Used for the subsequent reference if it is the same book and same page. If the page no. is different then after Ibid the page no. is used.
c) Using of op. cit-
To avoid the whole information of the book or article. Quoting of the name of the author, book and page number is enough.
Rahman, Dr Tanzilur, A Code of Muslim Personal Law, Islamic Publishers, Pakistan, 1990, vol. 1, p. 350.
Rahman, Dr Tanzilur, A Code of Muslim Personal Law, op. cit, p. 360.
d) Using passim-
If the information is scattered.
Mawdudi, Syed Abul A'ala, Four Basic Quranic Terms, Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan, 1972, chap. 6 passim.
e) Using pp.
For quoting more than one page.
f) Using edt, edn-
Chowdhury, Obaidul Haq, edt., Hand Book of Muslim Family Law, DLR (Publisher), Dhaka, Bangladesh, edn. 1st, vol. 2, 1993, p. 155.
nd. - no date
et. al. - and others
e.g. - for example
viz. - namely
vs. - against
cf. - approximately
Quoting of Public Documents-
i) Name of the country (.)
ii) Year (.)
iii) Name of the document (.)
In case of parliament the following style-
Bangladesh.2005.Marriage & Divorce Act 1962 (Rv. 2005) (Act. 505).
Quoting International Documents-
UNESCO.1960.Director General of UNESCO report Paris.UNESCO.
Quoting Article from Journal-
i) Name of Author (.)
ii) Year (.)
iii) Title of article (.)
iv) Name of journal (italic) (.)
v) Number of volume (bold)
vi) Number of issue (in bracket) (colon)
vii) Page no. of the whole article (.)
Dr. ABM Mahbubul Islam. 2005. Sources of Islamic Constitution. 11UC Studies. Vol.2. (3) : pp. 146-162.
i) Name of the writer (.)
ii) Year (.)
iii) Name of article (.)
iv) Name of Newspaper (.)
v) Date (.)
vi) Page number (.)
Dr. Tareq MR Chowdhury. 2005. Human Rights in Islam and Conventional Law: A Comparative Study. The Daily Star. 25 June. 8
Quoting Al Quran and Al Hadith-
2 ways of transliteration-
Example- Alif Lam Dhalik al Kitabu or
Alif Lam Mim Dhalika al Kitabu.
Using reference for ayat and Surah and Hadith-
i) Name of the Book (,)
ii) Name of the Sura (,)
iii) Number of Sura (:)
iv) Number of Ayah
Al Quran, Al Baqarah, 2:217
i) Name of the book (,)
ii) Status of the Hadith, Sahih or Sunan (,)
iii) Name of chapter and name of section (.)
Al-Bukhari, Sahih (k). Al Qada (b) or chapter (ch) sariqah. (If possible Hadith number).